••• The International Writers Magazine - * Academic Paper - Long Read
Conspiracy Theory - The Incredible Story of Krebiozen
Thomas N. Hackney
For approximately 20 years beginning in 1950, a non-toxic anti-cancer agent called Krebiozen was administered to 10,000 cancer patients throughout the United States by over 2,000 MD's in good standing. The tests were conducted under FDA regulations for experimental drugs. The patients—ranging from children to octogenarians—were almost all "terminal" or "hopeless," having undergone every conventional therapy available, namely surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
Response was 70-90% favorable, even in patients who were literally dying. In the latter cases, dramatic relief of pain and cessation of narcotics was almost always noted, including those of Senators Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan and Brien McMahon of Connecticut. Amazingly, a majority of the patients had partial or complete remissions of various cancers of the brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and colon. Practically all had widely located metastases, meaning that their cancers had spread to other parts of the body.
Almost from the outset of Krebiozen's introduction in the United States, the American Medical Association (AMA) denounced it and everyone associated with it. In March 1951, barely six weeks after Krebiozen's proponents announced the results of the first 21 clinical trials of Krebiozen, the AMA published a study of its own in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) purportedly showing that Krebiozen is useless in treating cancer. Because of the AMA's enormous power and prestige—practically every doctor in the United States belongs to it—oncologists of that era were afraid of reprisal or expulsion if they defended Krebiozen or used it to treat their patients.
From 1951 to 1964, when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially banned Krebiozen from interstate commerce, a 13-year medical controversy raged in the U.S. House of Representatives, legislative state hearings, public rallies, and scientific literature. Krebiozen was smeared and blocked by the AMA, the American Cancer Society (ACS), and major press, despite fairly massive clinical evidence showing that Krebiozen was far more effective in the treatment of advanced malignant cancer than anything else.
Krebiozen's proponents charged that the medical establishment had engaged in a "conspiracy" against Krebiozen—pretty wild stuff in the 1950s. Who could believe that the respected AMA would see fit to deprive the public of a promising, proven, and non-toxic treatment for cancer? The very idea seemed ridiculous, except for those personally involved with or receiving Krebiozen.
The whole question of Krebiozen's efficacy is plainly and definitively seen in the historical record, a record the medical establishment probably hopes the world never revisits. Krebiozen's efficacy, coupled with organized medicine's alleged conspiracy against it, are available in the proceedings of the 88th U.S. Congress and Illinois State Legislature, and in at least two major clinical studies directed by a giant in the medical field at the time,
Dr. Andrew C. Ivy. A. C. Ivy, PhD, MD
The chief medical proponent of Krebiozen in the United States was Dr. Andrew C. Ivy, head of Clinical Science and Vice President of the University of Illinois. Ivy was the author or co-author of some 1,500 medical articles, recipient of eleven major research awards and five honorary doctorates. He served as president of the American Physiological Society, chairman of the AMA Section for Physiology and Pathology, director-at-large of the ACS, executive director of the National Advisory Cancer Council, and scientific director of the Naval Medical Research Institute, to name a few. In 1946, the AMA selected him to represent the United States at the Nuremberg medical trials.
But there was something else about Dr. Ivy that made the entire 13-year Krebiozen controversy possible.: he was a bulldog who never surrendered when he believed he was right, no matter how powerful the opposition or difficult the circumstances. At the age of five, so the story goes, a neighbor's goat, notorious for butting any object that moved, cornered him against a stone wall. Andy's older brother, Marko, noticed his little brother's predicament and watched as Andy neatly sidestepped the goat's charge, then counter-attacked. Using his head as a battering ram, the future researcher struck the goat full in the stomach and beat his tiny fists into the soft underbelly, after which the goat shook his head a few times and took off.
When Andy was 17, he again demonstrated the same symbiosis of courage and original thinking. He was an expert boxer, standing only a little more than 5' 3" and weighing 132 pounds—and yet he had knocked out almost all of the challengers in his Missouri National Guard regiment. Eventually, he rose to challenge the National Guard state champion who stood six feet tall and weighed 185. (There were no weight classifications for the championship, so he was allowed to fight the heavyweights.) No one believed he had a chance so little money was put up that night. But Andy had studied his opponent's style carefully and before the opening bell strode to his challenger's corner and told him, "You're a sucker for a right jab after a good feint with a left. In the beginning of the second, I'll knock you out!" Before the astonished champion could think of a rejoinder, Andy returned to his corner. The first round saw the usual careful feeling out. By the end of the second round, the champion lay inert on the canvas, the victim of the exact maneuver Andy had predicted.
This was the mettle and intelligence of the man whom the entire medical establishment would eventually have to face over Krebiozen. It's a good thing, too, because there can be no doubt whatever that if it weren't for this brilliant little slugger, the world would never have come to know of Krebiozen, and thousands of cancer sufferers would never have received its benefits.
Ivy went on to discover several of the body's hormones, co-authored a classic volume on peptic ulcer, and launched research projects to find better methods of artificial respiration that would lead to the "arm-lift" method. He became a crusader against organized medicine's vicious quota system that attempted to prevent more than a certain number of Jews, Negroes, Italians, and Catholics from becoming doctors. He strongly criticized the book-memorizing, orthodoxy-idealizing, rote type of medical education it espoused, and encouraged medical students to think and question what they were being taught. Such attitudes had gained him many enemies, but professional enemies never bothered him, as we will soon see.
At 59, Ivy was introduced to Dr. Stevan Durovic and his anti-cancer agent.
Hypothesis and Discovery
Dr. Stevan Durovic discovered Krebiozen in Argentina in 1948, his basic hypothesis being that every living cell contains a regulator of its proliferative activity. He called his blood-derived substance Krebiozen (from the Greek: "that which regulates growth"), which he believed controls the permeability or enzyme systems of the cell, so that in its absence or deficiency, anaerobic oxidation and acidity of the cells is increased and uncontrolled growth occurs. His theory further postulated that Krebiozen is present in every healthy multi-cell organism, but not in sufficient quantities to overcome a heavy invasion of cancer cells proliferating wildly and overwhelming the regulatory agent (Krebiozen) as well as other immunological factors. In such cases, administering Krebiozen bolsters one's own supply of Krebiozen, causing cells in the early stages of malignancy to normalize and those in advanced stages to be killed or damaged.
Durovic had become fascinated by the mystery of cancer during his medical school days at the University of Belgrade. The young researcher wondered if the unique rapid growth properties of molds might apply somehow to the rapid growth of cancer. In 1933, at the famed Louis Pasteur Institute in Paris, he had studied the molds from which penicillin had been derived by Dr. Alexander Fleming in 1929. As would be true for Krebiozen, the medical establishment refused to pick up on penicillin until the need for it during World War II was overwhelming.
Durovic didn't subscribe to the politically correct, defeatist notion that a cure for cancer was basically impossible because it was actually so many "different" diseases and that all medical science could (or would) ever do was improve upon surgery and cutting and burning by means of X-ray, radium, and chemotherapy. But Durovic was sure that a defense mechanism was in the body, specifically evolved to regulate the growth of cells and fight off cancers. Even the most conservative doctors of the time knew about those 1 in 100,000 cases when a cancer suddenly and for no apparent reason just faded away, what the medical fraternity calls spontaneous remission.
When the Nazis attacked his Yugoslavian homeland in 1939, Durovic joined the Royal Yugoslav Army as a medical captain and was taken prisoner, launguishing for 18 months in a prisoner-of-war camp in Italy, dreaming up experiments to find the body mechanism that occasionally, if rarely, comes to a cancer sufferer's rescue. Durovic's first cousin Helena was married to former King Vittorio Emmanuel of Italy and so was able to arrange an audience with Pope Pius XII, who agreed to intercede with the Italian authorities to have Durovic released. He and his brother Marko were thus able to emigrate to the neutral country of their choice. The United States had just declared war on Japan following Pearl Harbor, so the brothers chose neutral Argentina, where Durovic set up a research laboratory and within eight years had isolated the substance he called Krebiozen.
The primary reason Krebiozen was immediately blacklisted had to do with the greed of a few men and the power of one of these men. Under oath, five people alleged that the AMA's treasurer, Dr. J.J. Moore, had communicated to the Durovics through proxies that unless distribution rights to Krebiozen were sold to two Chicago businessmen with whom Dr. Moore was associated, he would wreck Krebiozen and everyone involved with it. The Durovics refused J.J.'s ultimatum/deal, so Dr. Moore caused the damning AMA "Status Report" on Krebiozen to be published in the AMA Journal in 1951.
According to the "study," of the 100 cancer patients tested with Krebiozen, "ninety-eight failed to show objective evidence of improvement." Taken at face value, the finding was devastating—except for the fact that 73 of the patients selected for the study were so close to death that they were able to receive an average of only three injections of Krebiozen before expiring. Ivy's experience with the drug had shown that 40 doses of Krebiozen (.01 mg) were enough to treat 20 patients for 72 hours. Most of the patients of his colleagues had received an average of 80 doses, and some were still getting them.
In some cases, Krebiozen revived patients who were unconscious and in their last hours of life, but it is hardly to be expected that many would rise from their deathbeds and emerge cancer-free. Yet this was the test to which the AMA committee subjected Krebiozen for the "status report"! Moribund patients are not proper or valid cancer research subjects, the main reason being that there is a point at which the cancer destroys vital organs and leaves the body nothing with which to stage a comeback, even if every cancer cell is destroyed.
These and other revelations were disclosed at the Krebiozen Hearings in 1953 by the Illinois state legislature committee tasked with determining whether a conspiracy existed against Krebiozen. It was revealed that the clinical data in the AMA report on 24 of the patients (24%)—patients of a Dr. William Phillips, a colleague of Dr. Ivy's, not those of the 34-year-old doctor selected by the AMA to conduct part of the study—were faked. The AMA doctor's contribution to the status report was summed up as follows: "In no single case has complete or partial inhibition of the cancerous growth been demonstrated."  That the young researcher had never seen these patients nor administered Krebiozen to any of them did not concern the AMA; it accepted his faked data without Dr. Phillips' knowledge or signature. If the AMA had sought Dr. Phillips' corroboration, it might have been disappointed to learn that the actual improvement measured by X-ray—actual measurements of tumors, and other determinants—had occurred in 18 of the 24 cases!
Further proof of the bogus nature of the AMA report came to light at the Krebiozen hearings when it was learned that 20 of the original 100 "hopeless" AMA test patients were actually still alive and doing quite well, with nothing but their Krebiozen treatments to account for it. Also revealed was that the AMA committee responsible for the report had scrupulously ignored all of the 140 Krebiozen-treated patients whose cases were submitted to it in summer 1951 by 140 Ivy-organized physicians from all over the country. That study showed that 70 percent of the patients—not 7 percent—were subjectively improved (i.e. improved feeling tone, increased mobility, etc.), while 50 percent—not 2 percent—were objectively improved (i.e. exhibited reduced tumor sizes).
Enter Commodore Barreira
Further proof of a conspiracy against Krebiozen came from Alberto Carlos Barreira: businessman, landowner, Cabinet Minister and Undersecretary of Aviation for the Republic of Argentina. Well recognized in diplomatic and military circles in the United States, he was one of the best known and liked public figures in Argentina. The Commodore had endowed his Air Force with jet aircraft at a time when most South American countries were operating old World War II propeller-driven planes and had written several authoritative books on aviation and received numerous military honors from many countries.
Barreira had befriended the Durovic brothers when they resided in Argentina and had introduced them to influential people, including General Peron himself. When the Durovic's left for the United States, Barreira handled the affairs of their laboratory for a time. He was greatly cheered by early reports from North America that Krebiozen was proving effective in the treatment of cancer, but he was certainly puzzled when subsequent newspaper and radio stories began to denounce Krebiozen as a fraud. Without informing the Durovics, the blond, blue-eyed Air Force chief paid a call on AMA headquarters in Chicago. He asked Dr. Paul Wermer, compiler of the AMA Status Report: "Is Krebiozen good or bad? Is it what Dr. Ivy thinks? Seemingly beneficial? Or is it without value, as your article states?"
Dr Wermer replied, "Really, I can't say, but why don't you talk to Dr. J.J. Moore about it? He has most of the information on that subject."  Thinking it odd that the assembler of the AMA's negative report on Krebiozen should have no definite opinion on the subject, he arranged to meet the AMA Treasurer in his office, as advised. He had a plan.
After a few pleasantries, Barreira told Dr. Moore that he was happy to learn that the AMA had finally caught up with the Durovic's, as they had treated him rather shabbily in the past. (Actually, the Commodore was one of their best friends.) Stevan had given invaluable medical assistance to his wife who had suffered from an incurable kidney disease and extended her life years beyond what other doctors thought possible. After achieving an entente cordiale with the crafty treasurer, Barreira then told him that he was in possession of certain papers very compromising to the Durovic's. Moore was very interested.
Feigning an alliance with "J.J.," Barreira worked out the details of a scheme of action. Basically, he would provide his incriminating papers (then in Argentina, he told Dr. Moore), while Dr. Moore would continue to harass Durovic and Ivy and publish (or have published) additional unfavorable articles on Krebiozen. After the Durovics were brought to their knees, Barreira and "J.J." would share the proceeds, given that distribution rights to Krebiozen would be worth millions. (The Lilly Company had already offered $2 million for the rights*.) They would work out the exact division with their business partners, Ed Moore and Ken Brainard. Dr. Moore would meet with some of his associates in Argentina and together they would work out details of their "project."
The meeting with Dr. Moore in Argentina went as planned. Sworn affadavits concerning numerous phone conversations (all secretly recorded) and other meetings were brought brilliantly to bear on the Krebiozen Hearings, revealing an attempt by the AMA Treasurer to wrest control of Krebiozen away from its discoverer. It was also clear that Moore believed Krebiozen was indeed very beneficial, and that the AMA's condemnation of it was nothing more than pressure to force the Durovic's to sell their distriibution rights. The machinations and arm-twisting measures employed by the AMA Treasurer to bring this about were extraordinary, and were revealed in detail by Commodore Barreira at the hearings.
A few of Dr. Moore's phone-recorded statements and assertions stood out. For example: "It has never been seen that the discoverer of a medicine obtains benefits from it; the scientist discovers and the companies derive the benefits, if they exist; otherwise they are formed specially for that." 
In another instance, Barreira tells Dr. Moore that he was only interested in the money, to which the treasurer replied: "We are all interested just in the money, and we have to meet together in order to find the way to obtain it, lots of it, and soon." 
At another meeting, Barreira asks Dr. Moore: "Leaving business aside, it would be interesting to know your sincere opinion about Krebiozen." Dr. Moore replied, "There is no doubt that Krebiozen is good; it removes the pain and improves the condition of the patients during the first five or six months; in some cases the patient dies, in others the improvement continues."  The admission stood to reason, after all. Why else would Moore and his associates have been so keen to obtain business control of the substance?
Although Dr. Moore was not convicted of any crime by the Illinois commission, his reputation was perhaps impugned sufficiently to prevent his continued tenure as the AMA treasurer. One might have thought that such revelations would have put an end to the official disapprobation of Krebiozen, but this is unfortunately not how big power works. To admit that Krebiozen was in fact everything its proponents were saying would have reflected rather badly on the AMA, and this could never do. Powerful institutions rarely admit they are wrong, even when found to be wrong; instead, they circle the wagons and harden their position. Consequently, the attacks on Durovic, Ivy, and Krebiozen were doubled.
Moore got Dr. Ivy fired from his University of Illinois post—the man who in his seven years as vice president raised University funds for medical research from $85,000 to almost $1,000,000 annually; who increased the scientific budget from $2 million to almost $11 million annually; who almost single-handedly raised $25 million for a vast expansion program in the colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Nursing, and helped to obtain another $15 million for clinical facilities. All of which helped the University to become noted as a world pioneer in medical research, until the poison poured in the university bigwigs' ears served to negate Ivy's contributions and led to banning all Krebiozen research. Already, Ivy was suspended from that blue-nosed bastion of medical conservatism, the Chicago Medical Society.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Research Council conducted their own studies of Krebiozen only to reach the same conclusion as the AMA. The Council requested supplies of Krebiozen to conduct its study, but only the first 40 ampules were accepted from Dr. Ivy, enough to treat 20 patients for 72 hours. Although he offered to send additional supplies of Krebiozen, the drug requisitioning forms were never returned by the Council, so only the initial 40 ampules were ever made available. After several weeks, the Council announced that its opinion agreed with the AMA status report and was based upon "some cases"—the same fraudulent cases cited in the AMA study. The Council's report was published in the AMA Journal as an "independent" scientifically conducted test.
Most clinics were appalled by the publicity surrounding Krebiozen, but two of the best agreed to undertake a long-term experiment with Krebiozen. The Lankenau Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia essentially reported the same findings as Ivy: Krebiozen was effective in "hopeless" cancer patients in about the same ratio as that of Dr. Ivy's group of 200 physicians. Lankenau treated about 40 "hopeless" patients and totally disregarded "subjective" data, meaning they counted only reduction or disappearance of the cancers or their metastases, which is to say destruction of cancer cells as proven under a microscope. In its conclusions, the Institute wrote:
On biopsy of several of the cases we have seen what we believe to be unmistakable evidence of oncolytic change histologically [cancer destruction microscopically] which coincides with the changes seen clinically. In a few instances we have seen complete disappearance clinically of metastatic lesions. 
[Definite objective improvement was observed on 18 of the 40 patients, or 45 percent objective benefit, which paralleled the Ivy findings of 50 percent.]
The second clinic treated 30 "hopeless" patients with Krebiozen, considering both "subjective" and "objective" data. Its report included the following careful remarks:
I do not feel that the improvement [following Krebiozen therapy] is due to the natural course of the disease because improvement is not the natural course in a patient with widespread bone metastasis.... [One patient] received no other medication. The pain was reduced, her appetite improved and she gained weight. Several internists observed the blood changes. The patient was out of bed and walking without difficulty on June 29 [two months after administration of Krebiozen]. It has been demonstrated that Krebiozen can raise the hemoglobin and erythrocyte count. It is therefore reasonable that Krebiozen can give symptomatic improvement. 
Foreign studies of Krebiozen from 15 countries, without exception, closely paralleled the favorable findings shown by Dr. Ivy's groups. Hundreds of less fortunate cancer patients all over the U.S. were demanding access to the drug, lest they die, but they were ignored, and they died. One can only guess what the percentage of improvement would have been for many of these cancer sufferers who were not yet in the "hopeless" stage.
The Big Lie gets bigger
In July 1964, in association with 15 other U.S. Senators, Paul H. Douglas (D-IL) introduced a resolution directing the NCI to "undertake immediately a fair, impartial, and controlled test" of Krebiozen. The FDA and NCI replied with an extraordinary series of moves beginning with a press release dated September 7, 1964. A joint conference of the FDA and NCI was convened on the 25th and 26th, branding Krebiozen as a "hoax" and "quackery" and threatening Drs. Durovic and Ivy with criminal prosecution by the FDA. The threat was based on a spectrographic identification alleging to prove that Krebiozen was nothing more than the common body substance creatine. The NCI, for its part, said it had conducted extensive field investigations into Krebiozen cases, but would not allow anyone to look at its data or findings. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) refused to permit Dr. Ivy or anyone else to appear before the anonymous grey eminences ("experts") called upon to appraise the same data.
Although the term "national security" was not invoked, it might as well have been. Certainly the security at stake had nothing to do with the American people but with prestige and domination by the AMA, FDA, NCI, and all of organized medicine. As a direct result of these FDA and NCI actions, cancer patients receiving Krebiozen were no longer allowed to receive it. A great many more people died and continue to die.
The FDA's spectrographic identification was lavishly published in Life magazine in "Answer on Krebiozen: It's Useless—Government Identifies Embattled Pair's Cancer Cure." The entire 13-year medical controversy was now distilled down to a human interest story about the "sharp-eyed" 20-year old chemistry student who happened upon the "true" identity of Krebiozen by comparing its spectrograph with that of creatine.
But like everything else put out about Krebiozen by official medicine over the previous 13 years, the identification was completely false. In response to the FDA-generated publicity, the pro-Krebiozen senators, now numbering 41, engaged two independent chemical laboratories to determine whether Krebiozen and creatine were the same. Sen. Douglas summed up the results as follows:
First, the so-called identical 'fingerprints' are not identical, but there are significant differences throughout at least half the span of the spectrum. Second, chemical analysis demonstrates that Krebiozen is not creatine. Third, the difference in color demonstrates that Krebiozen is not creatine. Creatine is pure white or colorless to the naked eye. It does not fluoresce under ultra-violet light. But Krebiozen is tan to the naked eye and fluoresces under ultra-violet light. Fourth, Krebiozen contains at least six sugars and nine acids not in creatine...
Other Senate-appointed experts determined that the FDA had not squarely overlaid the spectrograph over the one of creatine, but had deliberately dropped the creatine graph down about 7-1/2 percentage points below the Krebiozen graph so that the differences between the two substances would appear minimal. They also pointed out that most of the important antibodies found in blood cannot be seen, much less properly analyzed by a spectrograph. The typical Krebiozen dose administered to patients at one time was .01 mg, or 1/100,000th of a gram! This was accomplished by dissolving the active ingredient (Krebiozen) in #1 light mineral oil.
Although the FDA tactic had clearly been designed to convince an unsophisticated lay public that Krebiozen was creatine, the differences between the two chemicals were large enough to drive a truck through. This, however, did nothing to reverse the FDA's charge. It responded in typical arrogant fashion: "A different interpretation of the infrared spectrogram by your chemists alter in no way the conclusions reached by FDA scientists and non-government consultants [like the 20-year-old student!]... [The independent findings] will not affect the results of the FDA analyses, which are themselves scientifically unimpeachable."
One of Dr. Ivy's main goals for Krebiozen was that it simply receive a double-blind, strictly controlled test by agencies like the NCI, the ACS, and/or the AMA. However, every conceivable device was employed to avoid such tests. These facts are a matter of public record in the Congressional Record, in Herbert Bailey's (**) books as well as in numerous media accounts. The Big Lie has triumphed to the present day, and hardly anyone even knows the word Krebiozen.
Recent cancer research has focused on the body's own natural defense against cancer. Ironically, Krebiozen is almost certainly one of the substances researchers are so feverishly searching for. No other immunological growth regulator has yet been found that incorporates the safe, non-toxic, easy to administer effective qualities of Krebiozen. It is also relatively inexpensive to produce and would be easily affordable. Because it is both cheap to produce and natural (and therefore unpatentable), major pharmaceutical houses have not shown themselves very enthusiastic about Krebiozen.
As a 20-year member of Herbert Bailey's non-profit group "Man's Frontiers," your author in the 1990s contacted dozens of pharmaceutical companies throughout the world about Krebiozen, only to receive various excuses for not being able to take on the project. The old burning, irradiating and chemo-therapeutic methods appear to be, well, lucrative enough.
A complete history of the conspiracy around Krebiozen can be found in two of Herbert Bailey's books, Krebiozen: Key to Cancer? (Hermitage, 1955) and A Matter of Life or Death (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1958). A 96-page monograph by Andrew Ivy called "Observations on Krebiozen in the Management of Cancer" *** was published in 1956 by the non-medical Chicago publisher, Henry Regnery Company. That no medical publisher would touch the work of one of the most eminent medical researchers in the country is testament to the extraordinary power of the AMA and its ability to put the fear on you. These works, along with the proceedings and debates of the 88th Congressional Record, were the primary sources for this article.
An excellent one-hour documentary narrated by Bill Stout about the Krebiozen controversy was produced and directed by William Kronick, a collaborator of David Wolper's during the 1960s. Sponsored by Timex watches ("takes a licking and keeps on ticking"), it was aired a few times on CBS and then never seen or heard from again. Kronick tried for years to find studio support for a major motion picture about the amazing but true story of Krebiozen but was never able to, alas!
In the summer of 1991, your author received a package at his NYC stock brokerage office from Herbert Bailey, a long-time friend and associate. It was a kind of call to arms containing documentation, some amazing news, and a plan. In the cover letter he wrote, "I am writing this letter only to those who are familiar with my books and Dr. Ivy's monograph and scores of other research papers on Krebiozen."
The news Herb revealed was two-fold. Sadly, Stevan Durovic—the great, albeit unknown, researcher—had died in Europe, with the world none the wiser. The second news item was a letter he had received from a 90-year-old doctor turned Krebiozen researcher, reporting that he had "completely reversed the AIDS infection of a popular performer" (name undisclosed) using Krebiozen. Wow, that was some news, though not entirely unexpected, since Krebiozen had always been theorized to be the universal immunological cell growth regulator.
The plan was to raise funds to produce a new batch of Krebiozen, since with Dr. Alexander's off-shore experiment, all remaining ampules had been depleted. Both a well equipped laboratory and horse farm were needed for the project, two items that don't come easily or cheaply. Add to this the technical and scientific expertise to produce and isolate the natural substance. These essential requirements never materialized.
Of course, the entire project would have needed to take place both in secret and off-shore, because if word of the project ever reached the F.D.A., there would be a FDA SWAT team at the door in a heartbeat.
Many a promising drug has been shut down and shelved this way. Indeed, the FDA's main role these days seems to be to bar and prevent any small-fry threat to the monopoly enjoyed by orthodox allopathic medicine and the drug companies that dominate the health field. So if the answer to a disease happens to be relatively simple, natural (unpatentable), or non-toxic, it is easily blocked with regulations, protocols, and all the expensive hoops. These cost drug companies hundreds of milions of dollars, which not only makes it impossible for small drug companies to exist, but causes many of the drugs that win through the process to be ridiculously expensive.
Dr. Durovic derived Krebiozen from the blood serum of horses infected with the mold, actinomyces bovis, which produces a condition commonly known by cattlemen as "lumpy jaw." In this way the horses were stimulated to produce antagonists to destroy the fast-growing tumors. At the height of infection, blood was withdrawn from the horses and allowed to clot. The serum was collected and then extracted with an organic solvent to remove the Krebiozen along with various fatty substances. The solvent was then evaporated and the fatty residue extracted with water to isolate the Krebiozen. The average yield per horse was 1.0 mg.
After Stevan and his brother, Marko, were run out of the United States by the FDA and IRS, little is known of them or their activities. What is known is that at some point Stevan went to work for a European pharmaceutical firm.
Among the very first observations on krebiozen made in the late 1940s were those reported by a vetinerary clinic in Argentina. In addition to destroying cancer cells in old cancerous dogs, it completely cleared their cataracts, as well.
The final chapter of the Krebiozen story is yet to be written.
© Tomas N Hackney Sept 1st 2023
Notes and references:
, , , , , , ,  Krebozen: Key to Cancer? by Herbert Bailey (1955, Hermitage)
 The United States Congressional Record (88th Congress, first session; Index reference: 716-610-91138) Heading: "FDA Mistaken, Krebiozen Not Creatine: NCI Judgment of Cases Biased and Irrelevant: Evidence Justifies Fair Test Now"
* In 1951, Abbott Labs offered to buy up Dr. Durovic's supply of 200,000 doses of krebiozen at a price of $7.23 per dose. Abbott competed with The Lilly Company (Ely Lilly today) for distribution and manufacturing rights and offered the Durovics a total of 2.5 million dollars.
** Herbert Bailey has been called the father of the vitamin revolution. In addition to his two books on the Krebiozen controversy, he wrote the first million-selling book on the subject of vitamins called, Vitamin E: Your Key to a Healthy Heart (1964). His subsequent books include Vitamin Pioneers (1958), GH3: Will It Keep You Younger Longer? (1977), Vitamin E: For a Healthy Heart and a Longer Life (1993 -- your author is mentioned in the Acknowledgements of this book), and E - The Essential Vitamin (1983), among a few others. He was a contributor of medical articles for a number of years to Collier's, Pageant, Argosy, Better Homes and Gardens, Science Digest, among others, and was a radio and drama critic for Billboard.
*** Summary of observations made on objective changes occurring from a few days to four months after Krebiozen administration. From the monograph "Observations on Krebiozen in the Management of Cancer" by A.C. Ivy, Ph.D., M.D.; John F. Pick, S.B., M.M., M.D.; W.F.P. Phillips, M.D. (Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, 1956)
Favorable No Change Unfavorable Time of onset (change)
Gen. obj. change 67% 28% 5% within 19 days
Tumor size 53% 26% 12% within 18 days
Edema 92% 8% - 18 days
Body weight 63% 23% 14% Avg. wt. increase 8 lbs.
Cough 44% 11% 33% within 24 days
Dyspnea 40% 20% 40% within 35 days
Bleeding 75% 17% 8% -
Mobility of extremity 87% 13% - within 19 days
Bedridden 50% 50% - within 15 days
Walking difficult 88% 12% -
Up occassionally 84% 16% - within 15 days